离开苹果公司之后，川崎成为了一名作家、咨询师和风险投资者，同时还开了自己的公司。他的书著包括《麦金塔方式》(The Macintosh Way)、《策略革命家》(Rules for Revolutionaries)、《销售梦想》(Selling theDream)，以及最近的《审视现实》(Reality Check)。现年54岁的川崎经常在自己的风险投资公司Garage Technology Ventures里评审创业公司的商业计划。公司的咨询范围包括物流外包乃至可再生能源等技术，但是他也坦承公司还未有重大突破性项目 – 即自己的苹果公司或Google。2008年，川崎推出了Alltop免费网站，该网站使用RSS Feeds技术来聚合数千家网站和博客的最新文章。他的博客“如何改变世界”（How to Change theWorld）是访问最多的商业战略网站之一。
1.要创造意义，而不只是赚钱。（make meaning, notmoney）“作为风险投资者，”川崎说道，“我们跟许多公司打交道，他们经常说一些他们认为我们想知道的事，也就是赚钱。据我观察，以赚钱为主要目的的公司多数很难成功。他们吸引了错误的共同创始人和早期的员工。”他提出，创业者应当关注的是，使产品与服务具有超出各部分总和的价值，这样自然就能赚钱。他提到了耐克公司在女式健身运动鞋方面的创新，改变了人们对于耐克“用几片棉花、皮革和橡胶，在远东地区不太可靠的生产环境下制造鞋子”的观点。耐克在有关女性如何被衡量和评价方面大做文章，最终将“2.5美元的原材料变成标志着效率、力量和解放的产品。耐克为运动鞋赋予了意义。伟大的公司创造意义。”当然，苹果公司在推出Mac、iPhone等产品的时候也采用了此种方法。
4. 产品设计遵循“DICEE”原则。“D”（deep）代表有深度，川崎认为应当设计出不同寻常的产品功能。他喜爱的一个“有深度”的创意就是Fanning Reef凉鞋，这款凉鞋的鞋底置入了一个开瓶器。“I”（intelligence）是指智能。比如松下公司设计的BF-104手电筒，鉴于人们家里总是有各种型号的多余电池，因此公司设计出可以适配三种不同规格的电池的手电筒。“C”（complete）是指全面，即不只是产品，还包括技术支持与服务的全面。第一个“E”（elegance）是指优雅：川崎认为产品的美观很重要。“公司应当有CTO（chief taste officers） – 首席品位官，”他说道。第二个“E”（emotive）是指情感。“卓越的产品往往带有强烈的情感要素：比如哈雷摩托、苹果麦金塔电脑。”
6. 让人们两极分化。想让所有人满意，最终只能让你生产出平庸的产品，川崎说道。在一些人看来，四四方方的Toyota Scion xB汽车看上去很丑，但是喜欢它的人却觉得它酷的不得了。TiVo在大受欢迎的同时，却使广告业为之抓狂。
川崎还为创业者提出了一个加分点 – 以及一个“自我检讨”。“别让‘蠢汉’得逞，”他说道，还列举了一些反对科技者的陈词滥调，比如，IBM董事长托马斯·沃森(Thomas Watson)曾在1943年断言说，全球的计算机市场总共“只有五个”(计算机历史学家质疑这条无确凿根据的发言的真实性)，还有，西联汇款未意识到电话的用途。这些公司重点考虑的是他们已经做的事，而没有放眼下一步。无视他们，川崎说道。尽管如此，他承认自己也曾经当过一次“蠢汉”。 20世纪90年代中期，他曾有机会接受雅虎首席执行官一职的面试，但他拒绝了。因为他当时认为网络只不过是装有电脑调制解调器的一样东西，门户网站更是没有太大的价值。“我计算过，这个决定让我损失了20亿美元。”
TenCommandments from Entrepreneurial 'Evangelist' Guy Kawasaki
When Guy Kawasaki talks about business innovation, as he did recently at aUniversity of Pennsylvania technology conference, he brings more than 25 yearsof major-league experience to the conversation -- a background that thegood-humored investor and entrepreneur calls "my checkered past."After getting a psychology degree at Stanford and an MBA at UCLA, theHawaii-born Kawasaki became the second software "evangelist" at AppleComputer, where his job from 1983 to 1987 was to convince people to createsoftware for the Macintosh. Kawasaki fondly recalls his colleagues at Apple asvisionary, driven and "arguably the greatest collection of egomaniacs inthe history of California -- though the record has subsequently been broken byGoogle."
After leaving Apple, Kawasaki started his own companies in addition tobecoming an author, consultant and venture capitalist. His books include TheMacintosh Way, Rules for Revolutionaries, Selling the Dream and,most recently, Reality Check. Now 54, Kawasaki listens to pitches fromstart-ups regularly at his venture capital firm, Garage Technology Ventures.Its portfolio includes technologies ranging from logistics outsourcing torenewable energy, though he admits the firm hasn't yet had its breakout hit --its own Apple or Google. In 2008, Kawasaki launched Alltop, a free Web sitethat uses RSS feeds to aggregate, by topic, the latest stories from thousandsof web sites and blogs. His blog, "How to Change the World," is among the most visited business strategy sites.
At Penn, he spoke at a conference marking the 20th anniversary of theExecutive Master's in Technology Management (EMTM) program, offered by PennEngineering and co-sponsored by Wharton. His talk, titled "The Art ofInnovation," amounted to a 10-point manifesto on how to make something ofvalue for customers. Along the way, he invoked funny and revealing examplesthat included everything from obsolete ice-delivery men to beach sandals thatopen beer bottles.
The following is a summary of Kawasaki's "Ten Commandments":
1. Make meaning, not money. "As venturecapitalists," Kawasaki said, "we deal with many companies, and oftenthey come in [saying what] they think we want to hear: that they want to makemoney. It's been my observation that most companies founded on this concept ofmaking money pretty much fail. They attract the wrong kind of co-founders andearly employees." Rather, he says, entrepreneurs should focus on makingtheir product or service mean something beyond the sum of its components -- andthe money may very well follow. He noted how Nike made its aerobic sneakers forwomen into more than just "two pieces of cotton, leather and rubber,manufactured under somewhat suspect conditions in the Far East." Withsmart advertising about how women traditionally have been measured and judged,Nike "turned $2.50 of raw materials into something that stands forefficacy and power and liberation. They are making meaning with shoes. Great companiesmake meaning." Certainly, Apple has done that with the Mac, iPhone andother devices.
2. Make a mantra, not a mission statement. Bland, generic company mission statements -- about "deliveringsuperior-quality products and services for our customers and communitiesthrough leadership innovation and partnerships" -- serve no one but theconsultant brought in to develop them, Kawasaki said. Instead, keep it shortand define yourself by what you want to mean to consumers. Nike stands for"authentic athletic performance." FedEx is about "peace ofmind." To get everyone internally and externally on the same page, explainwhy your organization exists and how it meets customers' needs and desires.
3. Jump curves. Innovating isharder than just staying a little bit ahead of competitors on the same curve."If you're a daisy-wheel printer company, the goal is not to introduceHelvetica in another point size. The goal is to jump to laser printer," hesaid. That's easier in some businesses than others. Kawasaki noted how in thedays before refrigeration, the ice industry consisted of ice harvesters in coldclimates using horses, sleighs and saws to collect ice outdoors during wintermonths. Ten million pounds of ice were shipped in 1900 that way, he said. Thencame "Ice 2.0" -- factories that could freeze ice anywhere and an iceman who would deliver it to establishments and homes. Finally came "Ice3.0": home refrigerators.
Of course, none of the ice harvesters got into the ice factory business,and none of the factories got into the refrigerator business. That's because"most organizations define themselves in terms of what they do," hesaid, "instead of thinking 'what benefit do we provide the customer?' Trueinnovation comes when you jump curves, not when you duke it out for 10% or 15%better."
4. In product design, "roll the DICEE." That's an acronym. "D" is for deep, which to Kawasaki meansthinking about features that go beyond the norm. One of his favorite"deep" ideas: Fanning Reef sandals, which have a bottle opener builtinto the sole. "I" is for intelligence, as seen in the design ofPanasonic's BF-104 flashlight, which uses batteries of three different sizes toaccommodate the random mix of extra batteries many people have around thehouse. "C" is for complete -- or being not just a product, butincluding support and service. The first "E" is for elegance: Beautymatters, according to Kawasaki. "Companies should have CTOs -- chief tasteofficers," he said. The second "E" is for emotive. "Greatproducts generate strong emotions: Think Harley Davidson, Macintosh."
5. Don't worry, be "crappy." This doesn't mean ship a bad product, but "your innovation can haveelements of crappiness to it," Kawasaki said. Twitter has a litany offlaws, but it is changing people's habits. The first Mac had plenty of room forimprovement, but it made a statement about the future of personal computing,and it did not need to wait.
6. Polarize people. Try to be allthings to all people and you often ship mediocrity, Kawasaki said. The boxyToyota Scion xB looks ugly to some people but very cool to its devotees. TiVobecame popular while maddening the advertising industry.
7. Let 100 flowers blossom. Borrowing fromChairman Mao, Kawasaki said you never know where the flowers will emerge, solet them grow. Innovations may attract unexpected and unintended customers.Think of Avon Products' Skin-so-Soft cream, which became popular as a mosquitorepellent. Rule one, he said, is "take the money. Rule two: Learn who'sbuying your product, ask them why and give them more reasons. That's a loteasier than asking people who aren't interested 'why not,' and trying to changetheir minds."
8. Churn, baby, churn. Always improve.Listen to customers for ideas. That's difficult, Kawasaki said, because aninnovator or entrepreneur must often ignore the advice of naysayers and"bozos" who say it can't be done. Once it is done, and the productreaches the hands of customers, it's time to start listening to their feedback."Once you ship, then you flip," Kawasaki said.
9. Niche yourself. Find your place,Kawasaki urged. He showed a simple X-Y graph, with the usual four quadrantsmapping the variables "Uniqueness" and "Value." A productor service does not need to be unique if it delivers value. That, he said, ishow Dell won market share selling computers. In the lower left quadrant of hisX-Y graph he placed many of the me-too dot.com companies of the late 1990s thatwere low value and uninspired. But in the upper-right quadrant were high value,unique products and services. They included the online movie-ticketing serviceFandango and the Clear card that can speed passage through airport security."The upper-right-hand corner is the holy grail of marketing," hesaid. "It's where meaning is made, it's where money is made, it's wherehistory is made."
10. Follow the 10-20-30 rule when pitching toventure capitalists. That means no more than 10 PowerPoint slides, a limit of20 minutes for the pitch, and using a 30-point font size in the presentation(to keep it simple). The goal of such pitches isn't to walk home with a check,he said, it's to "not be eliminated" from consideration.
Kawasaki added one bonus point for innovators -- and a mea culpa."Don't let the bozos get you down," he said, trotting out somewell-worn statements from technology naysayers, such as IBM chairman ThomasWatson's assertion in 1943 that the total worldwide market for computers was"maybe five" (computer historians question the authenticity of theunsubstantiated quote), and Western Union's inability to see a use for thetelephone. These companies were trapped by thinking about what they alreadydid, rather than what could be done next. Ignore them, Kawasaki said.Nevertheless, he admitted he was a "bozo" himself once. In themid-1990s, he was offered a chance to interview for the CEO position at Yahoo.He declined. He saw the web as just another thing to do with a computer modem,and a web index as having limited value. "By my calculation, this decisioncost me $2 billion."
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